OTHER FODDERS

Mize

Maize is an annual crop. It is grown on a variety of soils, but well drained fertile soils are best suited. Maize is mostly grown as KHARIF crop i.e. sowing in June - July. In south India it makes best growth in RABI and also in SUMMER. It can be grown throughout the year with irrigation facility. African tall, Vijay composite, Moti composite, Ganga - 5 and Jawahar are some important fodder varieties. Maintain a seed rate of 40 kg/ha and dibble one seed to a spacing of 15cm between the seeds in the row which are 30 cm apart. The average green fodder yield is 40-50 t/ha and the dry matter yield is 10-15 t/ha. Staggered sowing is recommended for supply of green fodder for a long period. Harvest the crop when the cob is in the milky stage. Maize have 9-12% crude protein.











HYBRID NEPIER

This is a perennial grass fodder. Napier grass is also called as Elephant Grass due to its tallness and vigorous vegetative growth. The plants tiller freely and a single clump may produce more than 50 tillers under favorable climatic and soil conditions. It possesses more tillers and leaves than Napier grass and is more vigorous and higher in fodder yield and quality. Crude protein ranges from 8 to 11%. PHULE YASHVANT, PHULE JAYVANT, DHN6,Co.CN4 is a recent hybrid Napier grass released by different agriculture universities. Yield range is 250-300 tons/ha. It produces more tillers with soft and juicy stem, free from pest and diseases and non-lodging. It can be cultivated throughout the year under irrigated conditions. Nepier grass have 6-8% protein.

SORGHUM (KALAVAD)

It is cultivated mainly for grain when singe seasoned variety and as a fodder when multi cut variety. Sorghum is a drought resistant annual crop, mostly cultivated in June or in November. It thrives in tropical climate with a temperature range of 25-35oC. It is not suited to higher elevations (more than 1200 m). It can be grown under an annual rainfall of 300-350 mm. It can be grown on any soil except on very sandy soils. Suitable varieties for Irrigated (Jan - Feb and Apr - May) are Co.11, Co. 27, Co.F.S. 29 Suitable varieties for Rain fed conditions (Jun - Jul) are Co.11, Co27, Co.F.S.29. If it is a single cut, it should be harvested at 60-65 days (50% flowering) after sowing and if it is a multicut, the first cut is 60 days after sowing and subsequently once in 40 days. There are also many local varieties present to cultivation.












COFS 29

This is a perennial grass fodder. Napier grass is also called as Elephant Grass due to its tallness and vigorous vegetative growth. The plants tiller freely and a single clump may produce more than 50 tillers under favorable climatic and soil conditions. It possesses more tillers and leaves than Napier grass and is more vigorous and higher in fodder yield and quality. Crude protein ranges from 8 to 11%. PHULE YASHVANT, PHULE JAYVANT, DHN6,Co.CN4 is a recent hybrid Napier grass released by different agriculture universities. Yield range is 250-300 tons/ha. It produces more tillers with soft and juicy stem, free from pest and diseases and non-lodging. It can be cultivated throughout the year under irrigated conditions. Nepier grass have 6-8% protein.

BAJRA

It is a quick growing fodder crop. As there is no risk of HCN poisoning, it can be fed to the animals at any stage. On an average, fresh fodder yield of about 500-600 q per hectare can be obtained. Varieties : L-72 and local varieties should be grown. Bajra can be grown on all types of soils free from water logging. Nutrient requirement : It requires 90 kg N and 60 kg P2O5 /ha. BAIF has develop one variety of bajra fodder by name JAINT BAJRA, which is multi cut fodder variety of bajra fodder.












COWPEA

It is a leguminous fodder crop. It is an annual crop. This crop is grown in tropics, sub-tropics and warm temperature regions. It is grown for feeding in green form, for hay making or for ensiling in mixtures with sorghum or maize. It can be grown during kharif, Rabi and summer seasons. It is suitable for year round cultivation. Recommended seed rate - 40 kg/ha. Harvest 50-55 days after sowing (50% flowering stage). Variety Co 5 is suitable for growing under irrigated conditions (June - July). Being a leguminous crop, it enriches the soil too. It gives about 230 q and 32 q green fodder and dry matter yield per hectare respectively. It is best fodder for goats with 20% protein value.

DESHRATH/DESMANTHUSE/HEGDE LUCERNE

Desmanthus is a perennial crop. It is grow throughout the year under irrigation and during June - October as a rainfed crop. Sow the seeds at 20 kg/ha in solid stand on the side of the ridges over the lines where fertilizers are applied at a depth of 2 cm and cover with soil. Irrigate immediately after sowing, life irrigation on the third day and thereafter once in a week. First cut on 90th day after sowing at 50 cm height and subsequent cuts at intervals of 40 days at the same height. Green fodder yield is 80-100 t/ha/year. IT CONTAINE 10-12% PROTEIN.












LUCERNE

Lucerne is also termed `QUEEN OF FORAGE'. It is a deep rooted perennial forage legume adapted to a wide range of conditions¬† ranging from tropical to alpine. It is very palatable and nutritious forage legume containing 15 - 20% crude protein on dry matter basis Lucerne adds nitrogen to soil and improves soil fertility. It is grown for green fodder, hay, silage but does not tolerate close grazing. Varieties include Anand 2, Sirsa - 9, IGFRI S - 244, and Co 1. Lucerne¬† is suitable for growing during July - December. Not suitable for very hot and very cold climates. Recommended seed rate --20 kg/ha.  First harvest 75 - 80 days after sowing. Subsequent harvests are made at intervals of 25 - 30 days.
Characters

  • Green fodder yield (t/ha/year)- 70-80 (In 10 harvests)
  • Seed yield (kg/ha)- 200 -250
  • Protein content (%)- 20 - 24
  • Dry matter (%)- 18 - 20
  • Plant height (cm)- 60 - 80
  • Mean clusters per tiller- 12 - 15
  • Mean No. of pods per tiller- 22 - 25
Mean No. of seeds per pod- 4 -6











DESHRATH/DESMANTHUSE/HEGDE LUCERNE

Desmanthus is a perennial crop. It is grow throughout the year under irrigation and during June - October as a rainfed crop. Sow the seeds at 20 kg/ha in solid stand on the side of the ridges over the lines where fertilizers are applied at a depth of 2 cm and cover with soil. Irrigate immediately after sowing, life irrigation on the third day and thereafter once in a week. First cut on 90th day after sowing at 50 cm height and subsequent cuts at intervals of 40 days at the same height. Green fodder yield is 80-100 t/ha/year. IT CONTAINE 10-12% PROTEIN.











STYLO

Stylo is an erect growing perennial forage legume native of Brazil. It grows 0.6 to 1.8 m tall. Stylo is adapted to tropical climate and tolerant to low fertility soils acidic soils and soils with poor drainage. Stylos are drought resistant legumes coming up well in areas receiving a minimum rainfall of 450 - 840 mm annually. The crude protein content of stylos ranges from 15 to 18%. Season is June - July to September - October. For line sowing (30 x 15 cm), the seed rate is 6 kg/ha and for broadcasting 10 kg/ha. First harvest can be taken 75 days after sowing at flowering stage and subsequent harvests depending upon the growth. It is to be noted that during the first year, the establishment after sowing is very slow and the yield is low. Later on when the crop establishes well due to self seeding it yields 30 to 35 t/ha/year from the third year onwards. Stylo is a good pasture legume.

OAT

Oat (Avena sativa) can be grown successfully for fodder purpose during the rabi season under both irrigated and rainfed conditions. Oat fodder is quite nutritive containing, on an average, 7.6 per cent crude protein at 50% flowering stage and about 14.6 per cent at very early stage of growth. Under adequate irrigated conditions, it may give three cuttings starting from January when green fodder is scarce. Oat is a medium maturing plant height of about 115 cm at 50 per cent flowering which comes in about 145 days. Leaves are broad and dark green in colour. It has uniform tillering with about 15 tillers per plant. It gives, on an average, 400 qunitals green fodder per hectare. The seed crop matures in about 190 days. Oat can be grown on all types of soils except on waterlogged ones.











BARSEEM

Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) is an annual leguminous fodder crop. It remains soft and succulent at all stages of growth. It can be grown without irrigation in areas with high water table and under water-logged conditions. It is a fast growing plant height of about 75 cm at flower initiation stage. On an average, it gives 500-600 quintals green fodder and 100-125 quintals dry matter yields per hectare in about five cuttings. It contains about 20 per cent crude protein on dry matter basis at early flowering stage. It grows well in medium to heavy soil and is tolerant to soil alkalinity. Preparation of land The land should be well tilled, leveled and should be free from weeds.

SUBABUL PLANT

This is fast spreading fodder tree which produces enormous seeds. Suitable season for sowing is June-July. Plants can be harvested in as early as 6 months after planting. However, the initial cutting should not be done until the trunk has attained at least 3 cm diameter or the plant has completed one seed production cycle. Harvests can be repeated once in 40 - 80 days depending upon growth and season. In drought prone areas, allow the trees to grow for two years to ensure deep root penetration before commencing harvest. The trees can be cut at 90 to 100 cm height from ground level. As green fodder under irrigated conditions, a pure crop yields about 80 to 100 t/ha of green fodder. Under rainfed conditions 40 t/ha of green fodder is got after 2 years of initial growth and pruning to a height of 100 cm.











SESBANIA / HADGA

The leaves of Sesbania trees are highly palatable and mostly liked by goats. The protein content in this is about 25%. Grown throughout the year under irrigation. Comes up in soils with good drainage. Seed rate is 7.5 kg /ha, sow the seeds at a spacing of 100 cm x 100 cm (100 cm between ridges and 100 cm between plants within the ridge). First cut after 8 months and subsequent harvests at an interval of 60-80 days. Green fodder yield of 100 tons per year is obtained from one hectare. It is a fast-growing tree, leaves are regular and rounded and the flowers white and red in color according to its species. The fruits look like flat, long and thin green beans. The tree thrives under full exposure to sunshine and is extremely frost sensitive.

SHEVARI / SESBANIA SESBAN

Sesban (Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) is a fast-growing, perennial legume tree, reaching a height of up to 8 m. It has a shallow root system and its stems may reach 12 cm in diameter. Leaves are pinnately compound with 6 to 27 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets are linear oblong, 26 mm long x 5 mm broad. Inflorescences are 30 cm long racemes bearing 2 to 20 yellow flowers with purple or brown streaks. Fruits are linear or slightly curved pods up to 30 cm long. Pods contain 10 to 50 seeds. Sesban yields up to 20 t/ha/year if conditions are favorable. World average is 4-12 t DM/ha/year with 3-5 cuts a year). In cut-and-carry systems, sesban can be cut when it is 1-2 m high, and cutting frequency is usually 5 times a year. A cutting height of 75-100 cm is recommended and some foliage has to be left in order to ensure re-growth of the plant.


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GOAT BREEDS

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Sojat breed

Sojat breed is cross of Jamunapari

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Sirohi breed

Compact medium-sized animals.

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Boer goat

The Boer goat is a breed of goat that was developed in South Africa

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Osmanabadi goats

These goats are widely distributed in osmanabad,latur and nearby small town places.